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Student Question

Secondary II • 2yr.

Good afternoon,

I don’t really understand the difference between gene, chromosome, DNA and genome?

Can you help me?

Thank you!


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Explanations (1)

  • Explanation from Alloprof

    Explanation from Alloprof

    This Explanation was submitted by a member of the Alloprof team.

    Team Alloprof • 2yr.

    Thanks for your question!

    First of all, deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a type of molecule that stores hereditary information in living things. DNA is in the form of a double helix. In reality, it is made up of multiple subunits called nucleotides. There are four types of nucleotides: adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine. In the structure of DNA, adenine is always paired (attached) with thymine, and guanine is always paired with cytosine.

    Genes are made up of DNA. Physically, a gene corresponds to a very precise series of nucleotides. However, when a series is translated, it codes for a very specific protein in a living organism.

    Chromosomes are masses of DNA that contain multiple genes. They form two centrally connected strands during cell division, giving them a distinctive X shape. In humans, there are 23 different chromosomes.

    The genome is made up of all the genes of a living organism.

    To visualize these different genetic terms, let's take the analogy of a cookbook:

    • Letters are nucleotides

    • Words are DNA

    • Recipes are genes

    • Chapters in the book are chromosomes

    • The book as a whole is the genome

    I hope this helps you a bit.

    Do not hesitate if you have other questions!

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