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Secondary V • 3mo.

How can the quantum model of the atom be applied to explain ionization energy, atomic radius and electron affinity?

Chemistry
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Explanations (1)

  • Explanation from Alloprof

    Explanation from Alloprof

    This Explanation was submitted by a member of the Alloprof team.

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    Team Alloprof • 3mo. edited November 2023

    Hi :)

    The quantum model of the atom provides a comprehensive framework for understanding the behavior of electrons within an atom.

    Ionization energy

    The energy required to remove an electron from an atom in its gaseous state, finds its explanation in the quantum model. Electrons are arranged in energy levels and sublevels around the nucleus, and the distance of an electron from the nucleus influences its ease of removal. Electrons in higher energy levels are farther from the nucleus, resulting in lower ionization energies. The concept of energy levels and their impact on ionization energy becomes apparent through the quantum model.

    Atomic radius, which denotes the size of an atom, is intricately linked to the arrangement of electrons. According to the quantum model, electrons are distributed in orbitals, and the average distance of the outermost electrons from the nucleus contributes to the atomic size. Moving down a column in the periodic table adds energy levels, leading to an increase in atomic radius. Conversely, moving across a period generally decreases atomic radius due to the increased effective nuclear charge, which attracts electrons more strongly.

    Electron affinity

    The energy change associated with adding an electron to form a negative ion, can also be understood through the quantum model. The electron configuration of an atom plays a crucial role, with atoms having incomplete electron shells often exhibiting higher electron affinity. The addition of an electron may complete a sublevel, resulting in greater stability. However, exceptions exist, and factors such as atomic size and electron repulsion can influence electron affinity.

    In conclusion, the quantum model provides a theoretical foundation for interpreting the electronic structure of atoms. By incorporating the principles of energy levels, orbitals, and electron configurations, this model helps elucidate the observed trends in ionization energy, atomic radius, and electron affinity across the periodic table.

    See you soon :D Don't hesitate if you have any questions :)

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